Caffeine Present in Various Substances


This simple EDA is my entry to the Data is Beautiful DataViz Battle for the month of July, 2019. The dataset used is attached to this post on Kyso, available to download and/or fork, or you can find it here.

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Quantity of Caffeine per unit of Food or Beverage


The dataset is a table with caffeine contents for several different items - food, beverages and medication. The generated graph below tells us a few things:

  • While the Chameleon Cold Brew is probably a typo, energy drinks are probably the most dangerous out of the group.

  • Energy drinks as a group have the highest concentration of caffeine among all substances.

  • Certain medications, like Vivarin, used to stay awake & alert, and Excedrin, used for headache and migraine relief, also have high doses of caffeine per unit of consumption.

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EFSA - Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Caffeine


The European Food and Safety Authority carried out an analysis of scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine, providing advice on caffeine intakes, from all dietary sources that do not give rise to concerns about adverse health effects for the general healthy population and subgroups thereof. The dataset they compiled contains data from 39 surveys in 22 different European countries for a total of 66 531 participants.

The main sources of caffeine in the diet include coffee, tea, caffeinated soft drinks (including energy drinks) and chocolate. The graphs below shows us the caffeine concentrations in such foods and beverages as reported in different publications and European dietary surveys.

  • The first graph demonstrates the mean value from Mayo Clinic Staff (2013) and Austria (Rudolph et al., 2012) (minimum and maximum).

  • We can see that an espresso coffee contains by far the highest concentration.

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Daily Caffeine Intakes


Daily caffeine intake for an individual was calculated by finding the sum of the intakes reported on all survey days during the survey period for that individual and dividing by the number of days. Individual daily caffeine intakes were used to estimate the mean and 95th percentile of daily caffeine intake from all sources and for each food group. The data was also grouped by by body weight, age class and food group across different dietary surveys.

  • The graph below shows the total max and min daily caffeince consumption across different age groups.

  • Adults and the elderly clearly consume the most caffeine on a daily basis.

  • It is interesting that the max intake decreases from toddler to adolescence.

  • While the minimum intake for the very elderly increases slightly, thei max intake decreases dramatically.

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Maximum Daily Caffeine Intakes by Food Group

  • Again, this is for the 95th percentile, for all subjects by age class and food group, across different dietary surveys.

  • We can see the dramatic increase of caffeine intake from coffee from adolescence to adulthood.

  • As subjects age, their caffeine intake from tea increases.

  • Children and teenagers get most of their caffeine from chocolate and (in the latter case) energy drinks.

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Daily Caffeine Intakes


The following graphs daily caffeine intakes from each food group by age class and food group for consumers of that food group only across different dietary surveys, and the max mg/day bw for consumers and and all people surveyed.

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Reported and Recorded Deaths


Below is the number of reported deaths due to fatal doses of caffeine in the blood.

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Reference: Simone Cappelletti et al. around history because of caffeine lethal doses

  • Hover over the data points below to view the cause of death.

  • It seems that suicide is the most frequently reported cause of death when caffeine concentrations in the blood are related to cause of death.

  • The number of cases, whether they be accidental or from suicide, has increased since 2010.

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